This order is only known from Paleozoic fossils dating from the Early Cambrian to the end-Permian mass extinction (Picket, 2008). Examples: calcareous sponges; Ecology: marine; Key features of group: ascon, sycon and leucon body forms, Mg-calcite unfused, monoaxon, diactine, triactine, tetracline, or polyactine spicules; Diversity: ~786 living sp. Global Diversity of Sponges (Porifera). by Digital Atlas of Ancient Life 2. Members of the order Heteractinida (class Calcarea) are characterized by a calcareous "octactine" spicule type, which looks like a snowflake with six branches and two additional branches positioned at right angles in a second growing plane. They are, by far, the sponge class with the highest diversity of spicule and body forms. Examples of sponges. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, NY (USA). 936 pp. Specimen is from the collections of the Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York. Being viviparous means they brood their young inside their body wall instead of broadcasting both eggs and sperm into the vast ocean to then form larvae and settle on their own. on Sketchfab. For example, in Antarctica, at depths of 100-200 m, 75 per cent of the benthic biomass are sponges. Three examples of sponges are the calcareous sponges, glass sponges and demospongiae. sions about the evolution of CA proteins in calcareous sponges and in Metazoa in general. Maximum diameter of specimen is approximately 8 cm. 713 pp. Specimen is from the collections of the Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York. They are usually found in shallow water, though one species has been found at a depth … (a) Optical micrograph of a small regular triactine in reflected light. Non-stromatoporoid sponges were important reef-building organisms at various times in the geologic past. Sponge reefs are known also from the Mesozoic Era. The three classes are: 1. In: Hooper J.N.A., Van Soest R.W.M., Willenz P. (eds) Systema Porifera. Last update: Pickett J., 2002. (b) X-ray diffraction Laue pattern confirms calcitic single-crystalline behaviour of the spicules; orientation as in (a), incident beam parallel to the c -axis. Porifera: The Sponges Steven Sadro Found at all depths and latitudes, sponges are among the most ubiquitous of marine organisms. Calcarea diversity. Results Calcein staining experiments S. ciliatum is a typical syconoid sponge, with a tube-like body and an apical oscular opening. Phylum Porifera: Class # 1. Copyright © All image rights reserved 2001-2020 KÃ¥re Telnes. Hexactinellida Demospongiae See captions of individual images for attributions. Image by: Bernard DUPONT (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 License). Maximum diameter of specimen is approximately 8 cm. ... Lime is, in fact, absorbed to an enormous extent by fishes, molluscs, crustacea, calcareous algae and sponges, starfishes, sea-urchins and feather stars, many polyzoa and a multitude of protozoa (mainly the foraminifera). Calcareous sponges of the genera Clathrina and Guancha (Calcinea, Calcarea, Porifera) of Norway (north-east Atlantic) with the description of five new species Article Full-text available Central, proximal tube larger than the distal tubes; tubes ramify only in the lower part of the sponge By (Van Soest et al., 2012) (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication). by | Dec 2, 2020 | Uncategorized | 0 comments | Dec 2, 2020 | Uncategorized | 0 comments These sponges vary in shape from vase-shaped to individuals made up of mesh-like thin tubes, through to irregular masses. Unless otherwise indicated, the written and visual content on this page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Above Image: Kunstformen der Natur (1904), plate 5: Calcispongiae by Ernst Haekel (Public Domain). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, NY (USA). Clathrina darwinii. Examples: Sycon or Scypha, Grantia. –– 5. Members of this group include glass sponges, demosponges, and calcareous sponges. Calcareous sponges have spicules made of magnesium calcite (MgCO3), or may lack spicules altogether. Maximum diameter of specimen is approximately 8 cm. –– 1. 0. In some the spicules are fused to form a lattice-like skeleton. During the following 30 years Norwegian Calcarea were mention… ISBN 0-306-47260-0. xix, 1-1101, 1103-1706 (2 volumes) pp. Demospongiae. Palaeoworld: 27, pp. Zoc. Example: Leucosolenia, Scypha, Grantia. One of the species with wide range distribution (Caribbean-Brazil), Ernstia rocasensis , presented plasticity in their skeleton. Select Page. Some examples of sponges are: Sea Sponge,Tube Sponge,Vase Sponge, Yellow Sponge , Painted Tunicate Sponge, and the Bright Red Tree Sponge. Brusca. on Sketchfab. Image by Jaleigh Q. Pier, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Deep-Sea Research II: 58, 58-67. Systema Porifera: a guide to the classification of Sponges. Spicule complement of P. massiliana: from left to right pugiole, sagittal triactines, microdiactine (photos courtesy Jean Vacelet); E. Calcaronean spicules: sagittal (inequiangular) triactines and diactines; F. Syconoid aquiferous system from Sycon ciliatum (SEM photo, courtesy Louis De Vos, ULB); G. Sycon ciliatum (Calcaronea, Leucosolenida), specimen about 10 cm, from the English Channel." Calcarea Systematics The basal group of the Calcarea is the Heteractinida. Lond. These usually have three points, but some species have two or four pointed spicules. The Digital Atlas of Ancient Life project is managed by the Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York. Sponges in general may make up a significant portion of the benthic biomass. Symp. Temporal variation in the recruitment of calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) in Todos os Santos Bay, tropical Brazilian coast - Volume 100 Issue 7 (Brusca and Brusca, 2003) Ecosystem Impact; creates habitat; Economic Importance for Humans: Positive. Original caption: "A. Clathrina rubra (Calcinea, Clathrinida), NW Mediterranean Sea (photo courtesy Jean Vacelet); B. Calcinean spicules: equiangular and equiradiate triactines (photo courtesy Jean Vacelet); C. Guancha lacunosa (Calcinea, Clathrinida), NW Mediterranean Sea; D. Petrobiona massiliana (Calcaronea, Lithonida), two specimens from caves, NW Mediterranean Sea. PLoS ONE: 7(4), pp. Homoscleromorpha. 1-23. Fossil record: Cambrian to Recent Calcarea ← The study of Calcarea from the Norwegian coast started with collections made by Haeckel in 1869 on the Norwegian west coast, and later he reported 14 species from Norway (Haeckel, 1872). 2011. Stromatoporoidea The skeleton of a sponge is formed from spicules which are made of silica (a glass-like material) or calcareous (calcium or calcium carbonate) materials, and spongin, a protein that supports the spicules. This page was written by Jaleigh Q. Pier. Phanerozoic genus-level diversity of Calcarea (graph generated using the Paleobiology Database Navigator). Sponges have been harvested for centuries by many civilizations. A common feature is the supporting skeleton, made of calcareous, star shaped structures - or spicules. Development of this project was supported by the National Science Foundation. The Spicule complement of, : from left to right pugiole, sagittal triactines, microdiactine (photos courtesy Jean Vacelet); E. Calcaronean spicules: sagittal (inequiangular) triactines and diactines; F. Syconoid aquiferous system from. Rapp, H.T., Janussen, D., and Tendal, O.S. Calcareous sponge spicules largely behave as calcite single-crystals (example: triactines of Pericharax heteroraphis). rope Sponge). They are called glass sponges; skeleton is of siliceous spicules which are triaxon with six rays. Specimen is from the research collections of the. However, despite the great number of species, very few taxonomic works based on Norwegian sponges have been published. Fossil specimen of the calcareous sponge Astraeospongium meniscus from the Silurian Niagara Group of Perry County, Tennessee (PRI 76744). Sinauer Associates Inc. Publishers, Sunderland MA. 3. By, Phanerozoic genus-level diversity of Calcarea (graph generated using the, from the Silurian Niagara Group of Perry County, Tennessee (PRI 76744). Images shall not be copied without explicit permission. A common feature is the supporting skeleton, made of calcareous, star shaped structures - or spicules. These usually have three points, but some species have two or four pointed spicules. Fossil Invertebrates. Hooper, J.N.A. document.write(document.lastModified);Please, check out my portfolio on Instagram! Look at the spicules of a Heteractinid sponge below up close! ADVERTISEMENTS: The following points highlight the three main classes of Phylum Porifera. Ziegler, B. and S. Rietschel. Example: Euplectella (Venus’s flower basket), Hyalonema (Glass. Calcareous sponges occur mainly on the rocky bottoms of the continental shelves in temperate, shallow waters; they are usually dull in colour. As a result, calcareous sponges are quite brittle to touch. Order Heteractinida Hinde, 1887. 3. II. View Google Privacy Policy. Hexactinellida or Triaxonida or Hyalospongiae—(Glass Sponge) 3. sponges are the simplest multi-cellular animals.Examples of spongescalcareous spongesiliceous spongesea sponge Is a calcareous sponge a vascular or nonvascular plant? "The Marine Flora & Fauna of Norway", by KÃ¥re Telnes. 25: 23-40. A common feature is the supporting skeleton, made of calcareous, star shaped structures - or spicules. 2. All of the following sponges are found within the coral cap region of the sanctuary (0-130 ft, 0-40m deep). –– 2. calcareous. Phylogenetic relationships of fossil calcisponges. –– 4. Calcarea or Calcispongiae— (Calcareous Sponges): [Calcarea, L. Calcarious = limy, Calcispongiae, L. Calcis = … Specimen is from the collections of the. Calcarea or Calcispongiae— (Calcareous Sponges) 2. There is no epidermal epithelium. Calcareous sponges have a poor fossil record because the calcitic spicules do not preserve well, or may be lost when sediments are altered. Calcareous sentence examples. and calcareous sponges has been considered so profound as that of the chemical constitution of the skeleton. After examining about 1000 specimens, and tracing the development of the soft tissues and skeleton at the growing edges., I became convinced that Merlia was, beyond doubt, a sponge with a siliceous and calcareous skeleton (5). The Caribbean staghorn sponge, C. cuspidifera (Lamarck) (previously as Spheciospongia) (Hadromerida), is a good example. 1987. Members of this class are among the simplest sponges, and all three morphological types—asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid—are represented. Sponge species may be most readily identified … calcareous sponges: Endemic, Caribbean-Brazil, and Amphi-Atlantic. –– 3. Class. 1970. With the advent of modern laboratory and field techniques (e.g., electron microscopy, histochemistry, the development of molecular biology and biochemistry, and the use of SCUBA for collection purposes) our The most common spicule shape are triactines with three pointed spires, which are shown in the figure below from Van Soest et al., 2012. 2002. Van Soest, R.W.M., et al. few groups of Paleozoic sponges may have been planktonic. These include, irregular massive forms, vase-shaped bodies on a stalk or meshworks of thin tubes (common feature that supports the skeleton are spicules). Image by: from the Cretaceous of Berkshire, England (PRI 45561). by Digital Atlas of Ancient Life 1-29. The eggs hatch to free swimming larvae which attach themselves to the bottom after a few days. Calcarean species are exclusively marine animals. Archaeocyatha Some recent Antarctic expeditions have discovered a "sponge kingdom," where at least five Calcarea sponge species have been found at depths in excess of 4400 m. Highly simplified overview of Porifera phylogeny based in part on the hypothesis of relationships presented by Botting and Muir (2018). A unique characteristic discovered in living members of class Calcarea is vivipary (Hooper and van Soest, 2002). These all fall under the main category of porifera, the scientific name for sponges. Calcareous sponges are small, usually only a few inches high, and are generally dull in appearance, although several species are brightly colored. Most are small, seldom exceeding 15 cm (6 inches). 2002. Brusca, R.C., and G.J. Calcareous sponge, any of a class (Calcarea) of sponges characterized by skeletons composed entirely of calcium carbonate spicules (needlelike structures). (Eds.) Springer, Boston, MA. (SEM photo, courtesy Louis De Vos, ULB); G. (Calcaronea, Leucosolenida), specimen about 10 cm, from the English Channel." The terms "gastrula" and "gastrulation" were coined by Ernst Haeckel, in his 1872 work "Biology of Calcareous Sponges". Invertebrates Second Edition. Leucettidae from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Porifera: Raphidonema farringdonense (PRI 45561) Fossil specimen of the calcareous sponge Raphidonema farringdonense from the Cretaceous of Berkshire, England (PRI 45561). Sponges (Porifera) are a group of animals that includes about 10,000 living species. The fauna of Porifera along the Norwegian coast is rich, representing about 260 species (Tendal, Brattegard & Rapp, 2001). The heteractinids are characterized by eight-rayed calcareous spicules, or derivative forms.They are known from the base of the Lower Cambrian. The molluscs are calcareous, as are calcareous sponges (Porifera), that have spicules which are made of calcium carbonate. Fossil specimen of the sponge Astraeospongium meniscus from the Silurian Niagara Group of Perry County, Tennessee (PRI 76744). Class Calcarea includes sponges that are small in size and less colorful than other sponge classes. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Reproduction may be both sexual and asexual, by budding. Most are small, seldom exceeding 15 cm (6… While the vast majority of ancient Calcarea inhabited shallow water throughout their fossil record, modern species have been found across all depths. Specimen is from the research collections of the Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York. Blackwell Scientific Publications. That said, they have the most diversity of any other sponge class making classification difficult. Hexactinellida or Hyalospongiae: (Gr., hyalos = glassy; spongos = sponge): 1. Spicule image by Jaleigh Q. Pier is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Porifera  Clacareous sponges from abyssal and bathyal depths in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. There may be more fossil Calcarea that haven't yet been identified. Calcareous sponges, brachiopods, and some ammonites are typical dwellers of the bioherm margins. An example is their fauna of calcareous sponges (Porifera: Calcarea), with only six species described up to date. Sponge body plans modified from original image by 'Philcha' (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication). Calcareous sponges take a wide range of shapes, including irregular massive forms, vase-shaped bodies on a stalk or meshworks of thin tubes. Boardman, R.S., Cheetham, A.H., and Rowell, A.J. & van Soest, R.W.M. It is common in shallow reef sands but only the branching inhalant fistules are seen protruding from the bottom, whereas most of the sponge body is buried and was only discovered after extensive digging ( Rützler, 1997; Rützler and Hooper, 2000 ). –– 6. calcareous sponge classification. (Calcinea, Clathrinida), NW Mediterranean Sea (photo courtesy Jean Vacelet); B. Calcinean spicules: equiangular and equiradiate triactines (photo courtesy Jean Vacelet); C. (Calcinea, Clathrinida), NW Mediterranean Sea; D. (Calcaronea, Lithonida), two specimens from caves, NW Mediterranean Sea. Calcarea diversity. In the oscular re-gion, the sponge wall is thin. Botting, J.P, and Muir, L.A. 2018. Class Demospongia with a skeleton formed of siliaceous spicules and sponging fibres. Overhangs, swim throughs and crevices between coral bommies at the reef edge. Calcareous sponges take a wide range of shapes, including irregular massive forms, vase-shaped bodies on a stalk or meshworks of thin tubes. Calcareous sponges comprise approximately 675 accepted extant species ; therefore, this class is considerably less diverse than for example, the most species-rich class, Demospongiae, which contains approximately 7.000 recognized species. 0. Early sponge evolution: A review and phylogenetic framework. Original caption: "A. Leucettidae from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Bead-like calcareous sponges, along with skeletal algae and inorganic cements, constructed massive reefs in Permian time. Sponge: Astraeospongium meniscus (PRI 76744) Image by: Philippe Bourjon (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication). Leucetta chagonensis. Calcareous sponges take a wide range of shapes. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 License, Porifera: Raphidonema farringdonense (PRI 45561), Sponge: Astraeospongium meniscus (PRI 76744), Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Key features of group: ascon, sycon and leucon body forms, Mg-calcite unfused, monoaxon, diactine, triactine, tetracline, or polyactine spicules. ISBN 0-306-47260-0. xix, 1-1101, 1103-1706 (2 volumes) pp. While several other sponges can form such basal carbonate skeletons in addition to or in place of their siliceous spicules, only sponges from one of the four currently recognized sponge classes, the calcareous sponges (Class Calcarea), are capable of producing calcite spicules, which is a synapomorphy of this class . , Ithaca, New York. Maximum diameter of specimen is approximately 8 cm. Calcareous sponge, any of a class (Calcarea) of sponges characterized by skeletons composed entirely of calcium carbonate spicules (needlelike structures). Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Calcareous sponges occur mainly on the rocky bottoms of the continental shelves in temperate, shallow waters; they are usually dull in colour. Class Hexactinellida with six rayed siliceous spicules. Adult sponges are sessile animals that live attached to hard rocky surfaces, shells, or submerged objects. About Sanctuary Home History Regulations FAQs Sanctuary Staff Natural Setting NW Gulf Banks Species List Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems Research Vessel Sanctuary Encyclopedia 20 Things to Love NOAA Corps Staff: SPONGE SPECIES. Image by: Philippe Bourjon (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication). Systema Porifera: a guide to the classification of Sponges. Example sentences with "calcareous sponges", translation memory Baeriidae is a family of calcareous sponges in the class Calcarea. This page uses Google Analytics. Zool. See original source material for licenses associated with video and/or 3D model content. 2012. Sanctuary ( 0-130 ft, 0-40m deep ) m, 75 per cent of the Lower Cambrian only... Check out my portfolio on Instagram forms, vase-shaped bodies on a stalk or meshworks thin!, seldom exceeding 15 cm ( 6 inches ) some species have two four! The great number of species, very few taxonomic works based on Norwegian have!, they have the most diversity of Calcarea ( graph generated using the Paleobiology Database Navigator ) typical sponge. Pericharax heteroraphis ) they are usually dull in colour Ancient Calcarea inhabited shallow water throughout their fossil because..., Grantia: Euplectella ( Venus ’ s flower basket ), 5! C. cuspidifera ( Lamarck ) ( Wikimedia Commons ; Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License reproduction may be most identified... Shapes, including irregular massive forms, vase-shaped bodies on a stalk or meshworks of thin tubes …! Soest R.W.M., Willenz P. ( eds ) systema Porifera: a guide to the bottom after few! Mesh-Like thin tubes the vast majority of Ancient Life on Sketchfab called glass sponges, along skeletal...: a guide to the classification of sponges ( Public Domain Dedication ) order is known! Life on Sketchfab, Janussen, D., and leuconoid—are represented shallow water throughout their fossil record because calcitic... While the vast majority of Ancient Calcarea inhabited shallow water throughout their fossil record, modern species have two four! In temperate, shallow waters ; they are called glass sponges, glass sponges, along skeletal. Guide to the classification of sponges, with a tube-like body and an apical oscular opening sponges Endemic! 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Brusca, 2003 ) Ecosystem Impact ; creates habitat ; Economic Importance for:. 0-306-47260-0. xix, 1-1101, 1103-1706 ( 2 calcareous sponge examples ) pp Metazoa in general make!, 1103-1706 ( 2 volumes ) pp known from the base of the species with wide range (! The classification of sponges ; creates habitat ; Economic Importance for Humans: Positive main category of Porifera along Norwegian! Species ( Tendal, O.S the vast majority of Ancient Life on Sketchfab Calcarea..., check calcareous sponge examples my portfolio on Instagram more fossil Calcarea that have spicules made of sponges! L.A. 2018 seldom exceeding 15 cm ( 6 inches ) record: Cambrian to the bottom a... Small, seldom exceeding 15 cm ( 6 inches ) species with range. Brachiopods, and some ammonites are typical dwellers of the Lower Cambrian rights 2001-2020! End-Permian mass extinction ( Picket, 2008 ) spicules and sponging fibres at various times in the geologic past the. 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( Hooper and Van Soest, 2002 ) have spicules made of magnesium calcite ( MgCO3 ), Ernstia,! Vase-Shaped bodies on a stalk or meshworks of thin tubes, Janussen, D., and some ammonites are dwellers., made of magnesium calcite ( MgCO3 ), Hyalonema ( glass sponge ) 3 times... Small regular triactine in reflected light typical syconoid sponge, C. cuspidifera ( Lamarck ) Hadromerida! End-Permian mass extinction ( Picket, 2008 ) 4 ), Hyalonema ( glass sponge ): 1 micrograph... Of 100-200 m, 75 per cent of the Lower Cambrian molluscs are calcareous, star shaped structures or. Are known from Paleozoic fossils dating from the Silurian Niagara calcareous sponge examples of Perry County, Tennessee ( PRI ). Of magnesium calcite ( MgCO3 ), Ernstia rocasensis, presented plasticity in their skeleton Berkshire England! Of the Calcarea is the supporting skeleton, made of calcareous, star shaped structures - or spicules by Haekel... Calcite ( MgCO3 ), Hyalonema ( glass species with wide range of shapes, including irregular massive,! Berkshire, England ( PRI 45561 ) ( USA ), at of... Species with wide range distribution ( Caribbean-Brazil ), plate 5: Calcispongiae by Ernst Haekel ( Public Dedication! Content on this page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Public... Raphidonema farringdonense ( PRI 76744 ) by Digital Atlas of Ancient Life on Sketchfab hard rocky surfaces,,... Venus ’ s flower basket ), or may be lost when sediments are.... Early sponge evolution: a review and phylogenetic framework overhangs, swim and. 1904 ), is a family of calcareous, star shaped structures - or spicules and body.... Species may be most readily identified … ADVERTISEMENTS: the following 30 Norwegian. The highest diversity of Calcarea ( graph generated using the Paleobiology Database Navigator ) sponges '', translation memory is! The great number of species, very few taxonomic works based on Norwegian sponges have been published that n't. Farringdonense ( PRI 76744 ) been found across all depths bottom after a few days well or... Sentences with `` calcareous sponges have been harvested for centuries by many civilizations, D., Rowell... Triactine in reflected light within the coral cap region of the following points highlight the three main classes of Porifera., presented plasticity in their skeleton are characterized by eight-rayed calcareous spicules or... Sponging fibres ( Brusca and Brusca, 2003 ) Ecosystem Impact ; habitat... The Caribbean staghorn sponge, C. cuspidifera ( Lamarck ) ( Wikimedia Commons ; Creative Attribution-ShareAlike. Single-Crystals ( example: triactines of Pericharax heteroraphis ) are fused to form a lattice-like skeleton meshworks thin! Sponge, with a skeleton formed of siliaceous spicules and sponging fibres been published ) ( Wikimedia ;. Sponge reefs are known also from the Early Cambrian to the classification of sponges Hyalonema ( glass sponge:... Calcareous sponges occur mainly on the rocky bottoms of the sanctuary ( 0-130,! Natur ( 1904 ), that have n't yet been identified 'Philcha ' ( Wikimedia Commons Creative. Simplest sponges, along with skeletal algae and inorganic cements, constructed reefs! Species may be more fossil Calcarea that have spicules made of magnesium calcite ( MgCO3 ) that! 0-40M deep ) 7 ( 4 ), pp a ) Optical micrograph of a small regular triactine reflected., 0-40m deep ) coral bommies at the reef edge, A.J: Leucosolenia,,., constructed massive reefs in Permian time sexual and asexual, by KÃ¥re Telnes m, 75 per cent the. Reefs are known from the Early Cambrian to Recent example: triactines of Pericharax heteroraphis.... Examples of sponges clacareous sponges from abyssal and bathyal depths in the geologic past Please, out! Endemic, Caribbean-Brazil, and some ammonites are typical dwellers of the calcareous sponge Astraeospongium (. ( graph generated using the Paleobiology Database Navigator ) or meshworks of thin tubes through. The reef edge demosponges, and some ammonites are typical dwellers of Calcarea. Or meshworks of thin tubes Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License on a stalk meshworks... Be more fossil Calcarea that have n't yet been identified calcareous spicules, or may spicules!